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Advanced Play
Advanced Level Play is played where extra rules are invoked. The games are played without bisques so, to avoid games being finished too quickly by the in-player finishing in 2 turns, a lift is given to his opponent when he runs 1-back and 4-back. Should 4-back be run in the same turn as 1-back, then contact can be claimed by the opponent if 1-back has not already been run in a separate turn.
Adversary Opponent.
Angled Hoop
Where the ball is well off the midline of a hoop it intends to run.
Aspinall Peel
A promotion peel where the peelee is jawsed in the croquet stroke and then struck by the striker's ball again in the same croquet stroke.
Backward Ball The ball of a side which has not made as many hoops as the other.
Baulk Line There are 2 baulk lines, both imaginary, one yard into the lawn parallel to the boundary:
  A Baulk, running from the middle of South Boundary to the corner spot in corner 1;
  B Baulk, running from the middle of North Boundary to the corner spot in corner 3.
Balls are played on to the lawn from the baulk lines at the start of the game or when a lift is taken.
Bisque An extra turn in a handicap game indicated by wooden sticks given to the weaker player in a handicap game.
The edges of the lawn which is defined by the inside edge of the marked lines.
A sequence of shots which allows many hoops to be made in one turn.
(Four-Ball) Break

A term used to describe how a player can use all the other balls (under control and in useful positions) before running a number of hoops in a single turn. A ball called the pivot remains near the centre of the lawn, a ball known as a pioneer is sent to the next hoop, and the striker's ball and another are used to make the present hoop.

(Lay a) Break To arrange the balls in good position so that later in that turn or during the next turn a player can make a break.
(Make a) Break To go through two or more hoops in one turn.
(Pick up a) Break To arrange the balls for a break and make it during the same turn.
(Three-Ball) Break A manoeuvre involving three balls which allows multiple hoops to be scored in a single turn; similar to the four-ball break but without a pivot ball.
Break Down To make a mistake so that a turn comes to an end involuntarily during the course of a break.
Cannon A cannon occurs when 3 (or even 4) balls are in contact with each other on a boundary, often in a corner. The ball taking croquet can be placed against the ball it roqueted while the third (and fourth) ball while the third (and fourth) ball may be placed anywhere in contact with that roqueted ball.
The swinging of the mallet over the striker's ball one or more times before making a final swing in which the mallet hits the ball.
Clothes-peg-like markers, coloured to match the balls, which are used to indicate the next hoop a ball has to make next. Clips are placed on top of a hoop on the first circuit and on the uprights of the hoop for the second circuit.
A fault or other 'breaking of the rules' is condoned after a set number of strokes known as the 'limit of claims'. When condoned, play carries on as if no error had occurred.
(Taking) Contact An option in advanced play arising when the opponent has been through 1-back and 4-back with their forward ball in a single break. The player claiming contact can place either of his balls in contact with any other ball and playing a croquet shot, or he has the option of taking a lift from a baulk line.
Continuation Stroke An extra stroke played after a croquet stroke or running a hoop.
The point of intersection of two boundaries.
Corner Spot
The point where the two yard lines meet in the corner.
(To take) Croquet (or a Croquet stroke) The stroke following the initial hit-in (roquet) in order to strike a ball, which has been placed in contact with another, so that they both move.
Croqueted Ball The ball from which croquet is taken.
Where two balls are obstructed from hitting each other by placing them either side of the peg.
Cross-Wiring Where two balls are obstructed from hitting each other by placing them either side of a hoop.
The horizontal part (top) of a croquet hoop.
Either when the mallet strikes a ball which is in contact with a hoop or peg and the direction of aim is not away from the hoop or peg, or when a ball is hit predominently downwards into the ground in a stroke.
A major defect in the surface of the lawn being the result of a shot improperly executed (this is a fault under the Laws of Croquet).
Further away than normal, at a greater distance.
Double Bank
To use two sets of four balls on one lawn. The second set of balls are the Secondary Colours.
Double Tap A stroke in which more than one audible sound is made between the mallet and the ball.
Drive A croquet stroke which is made when the mallet head is parallel with the court and with normal follow through; the croqueted ball goes about three times the distance of the ball struck.
The boundary of the lawn spanning hoops three and four.
Escape Ball
A second ball at a hoop where a peel is taking place. Once the peel has been made the escape ball can be roqueted and the break continued.
The striking surface of a mallet excluding its bevelled edge.
A breach of the Laws of Croquet.
Follow Through
The continuation of the swing involved in a stroke after the mallet has made contact with the ball.
Forward Ball The ball of a side which has made more hoops than the other ball at the start of a turn.
Free Shot To shoot at a ball or balls which, if missed, will give the opponent no advantage.
Half-bisque An extra turn in a handicap game but no point can be scored with it.
(A ball in) Hand The striker’s ball when it has made a roquet.
Handicap Play A method of biasing games so that both weak and strong players have an equal probability of winning. This is done by giving the weaker player extra turns, indicated by sticks known as bisques.
Hitting In
To strike the striker's ball so that it hits another (remote) ball.
(Make or run a) Hoop To send a ball through its hoop in order.
Hoop Position
Being in front of a hoop in a position from which one can run the hoop.
To have control over the balls. This normally means that you can have your balls together and your opponent in a disadvantageous position.
In Player The person in play.
Irish Grip
One of the three common methods of holding a croquet mallet for single ball strokes. For a right-handed player, the left hand grips the top of the shaft with the palm in contact with the shaft, the palm facing forwards and the thumb downwards. The right hand grips the shaft below the left hand, the palm against the shaft and facing forwards.
Irish Peel
A peel executed during a croquet shot in which both balls pass through the hoop in question; normally played as a roll.
The area lying between the uprights of a hoop.
Jawsed A ball which has been placed partly or wholly between the jaws of a hoop.
Joining Up
To end a turn with both of your balls in close prximity.
Jump Shot
A stroke played slightly down on a ball which causes the ball to jump. It imparts forward spin on the ball but there is little control on the energy given to the ball.
The official rules of the game prepared by the Croquet Association.
To position your balls at the end of a turn.
Leave The (controlled) placement of the balls at the end of a turn (mainly referred to in Advanced Level Play).
Level Play
A game which is not played on handicap and, therefore, no bisques are involved.
Lift To lift a ball from where it lies and play it from baulk, normally as a result of a wiring or as a consequence of Advanced Play.
Maugham Standard Leave. An arrangement of balls adopted at the end of the first break in an advanced game, named after David Maugham who first used it extensively. It differs from the NSL in that one of the opponent's balls is left tight on hoop 2, wired from B Baulk.
The boundary of the lawn spanning hoops two and three.
New Standard Leave. An arrangement of balls adopted at the end of the first break in an advanced game. It differs from the OSL in that one of the opponent's balls is left by hoop 4 rather than the peg.
Object Ball The ball being aimed at by/taken off from the striker's ball.
Out-player The person not in play.
Old Standard Leave. A common arrangement of balls adopted at the end of the first break in an advanced game. One opponent ball is left near hoop 2 and the other, preferably wired, by the peg.
Partner Ball The second ball of a side that is not the striker’s ball.
Peel To send a ball other than the one being played with through its hoop.
(Double) Peel
A manoeuvre in which a ball is peeled through its final two hoops during a single break and pegged out.
(Triple) Peel A turn in which a player peels another ball through the last three hoops and pegs it out.
(Delayed) Peel When a peel is attempted at a later point in a break then when it would normally be done.
The ball which is peeled.
Peg Out To make a rover ball hit the peg (either directly or promoted by another rover ball) and thus be out of the game. If a single ball is pegged out during handicap play, both balls of a “side” must be rover balls (or an opponent ball must have been pegged out.)
Abbreveiation for penultimate.
Penultimate The eleventh hoop.
Pilot Ball The ball off which a player makes a hoop.
Pioneer Ball The ball which is waiting at a player's next or next-but-one hoop. It acts as a stepping stone to make the hoop approach easier.
Pilot Ball
Another name for a pioneer ball. Often used to indicate a ball at your next hoop, whereas pioneer is more commonly used for a ball at your next-but-one hoop.
Pivot Ball The ball between a player's next two hoops in a four ball break, usually kept in the middle of the lawn by high bisquers.
Playing Side of the Hoop The side from which the ball enters the hoop to run it.
POP Peel on OPponent (see Peel). Basically, it's a tactic that makes it more difficult for the opponent to have a finishing peeling turn (TP etc) later on in the game.
Primary Colours
The set of balls coloured Blue, Red, Black and Yellow. Blue & Black are always paired together as are Red & Yellow.
Causing a ball which was not struck, or in direct contact with the struck ball, to move, e.g. a croqueted ball can be aimed at a ball in the jaws of a hoop and that ball be promoted by the collision.
This describes the motion of balls in a split croquet shot. Under some conditions the balls do not travel along their intened lines but curve slightly back together (towards the aimong line). This is caused by side spin developed in the shot.
Reception Ball
This is the ball you roquet immediately after running a hoop. It is usually placed on the far side of a hoop that you are about to run. That being the case, you normally turn your pioneer at a hoop into your reception ball when you play the croquet shot to obtain hoop position.

To 'Riggall' someone is to peg them out (named after Leslie Riggall, a late South African who wrote on the disadvantages of "pegging out" one ball when its partner ball has not yet finished the course of hoops, thus causing the "pegged out" ball to be removed from the game). Or "to Riggall one off" is to peg out ones own ball.

(Equal) Roll A croquet stroke in which both balls travel approximately the same distances.
(Pass) Roll A croquet stroke in which the back ball travels further than the front ball.
(Split) Roll
A croquet stroke in which both balls usually travel the same distance but with a divergence in their paths.
Roquet To make a striker's ball hit another from which it is entitled to take croquet.
Rover The final, twelth, hoop to be run, marked with a red crossbar.
Rover Ball A ball which has made all the hoops. Only a rover ball can peg out another rover ball.
Rush To roquet a ball to a predetermined place.
(Cut) Rush
A roquet shot in which the roqueted ball moves sideways; a difficult shot for which to gauge the strength.
Rush Line An imaginary line which is the continuation in both directions of the line of the proposed rush. By approaching a ball along the rush line you avoid the necessity of playing difficullt cut rushes.
Secondary Colours
The set of balls coloured Green, Pink, Brown and White. Green & Brown are always paired together as are Pink & White. These allow two games to be played without confusion on one lawn.
A rare manoeuvre in which one ball is peeled through its last six hoops and pegged out whilst the striker's ball makes a break. Advantageous in that a lift is not given away after the first break as the first ball does not make 1-back in its own break.
A fault in a croquet stroke whereby the mallet accelerates or deviates from its initial line once it has made contact with the striker's ball. The strikler is said to be "shepherding the balls".
To strike a ball towards a target.
The boundary of the lawn spanning hoops one and four.
The rotation of a ball about a horizontal or vertical axis. The former is used to assist running hoops and trueness of the ball's travel, and the latter is a consequence of certain roll shots giving rise to pull.
Split Shot A croquet stroke in which the balls go in different directions.
To hit a ball with a brisk stroke with no follow through.
Standard Grip
One of the three common methods of holding a croquet mallet for single ball strokes. For a right-handed player, the left hand is at the top of the shaft with the thumb at or over the top of the shaft and the knuckles facing forwards. The right hand grips the shaft below the left hand, the palm against the shaft and facing forwards.
Start Line See Baulk Line.
Striker's Ball The ball used by the striker throughout a turn.
Stop Shot A croquet stroke in which the croqueted ball goes relatively farther and the striker’s ball goes a relatively less distance than a drive.
Sweep Shot
A stroke played to roquet a ball when the striker's ball is tight on a hoop. The mallet is swung across the aiming line but still facing the aiming line.
Take-Off A croquet stroke in which the striker's ball goes a comparatively long distance to the croqueted ball, which only just moves.
Tice A ball sent by a player a certain distance from his opponent, usually from baulk, with the intention of enticing the opponent to shoot at it and miss.
The call made when the time limit is reached in a timed game.
Timed Game
A game played to a pre-defined time limit. Special rules apply to the use of bisques and the determination of who wins when there is a draw at the end of the timed period.
Top Spin
Spin on the ball about the horizontal axis normal to the direction of travel. The direction of spin is such as to enhance the forward motion of the ball.
A coin is tossed at the start of the game to determine who has first choice of the opening options: colour of balls or who goes in.
Abbreviation of triple peel.
TPO Abbreviation of triple peel on opponent's ball.
Turn A span of time from one shot to many shots, depending on extra shots earned during the normal course of a game.
The vertical part of a hoop.
Wafer Cannon A three-ball croquet shot in which the roqueted ball lies between the striker's ball and a third ball. These outer balls do not touch but are separated by a very small gap.
The boundary of the lawn spanning hoops one and two.
Wharrad Turn A 'Wharred Turn' is used in handicap play to make the game fairer for the lower handicap player. In a conventional handicap match the higher handicapper may take up a very high proportion of the allotted time taking  bisques and, therefore, not allow much time on the lawn for the opponent. A certain amount of 'wharred turns' are, therefore, allocated to each player to be taken after time is called allowing the lower handicapper a guaranteed number of turns in which to try and catch up.
The vertical part of a hoop, and also descibing the process of wiring.
Wired A ball is wired from the striker if the peg or a hoop prevent the striker's ball from hitting any part of it by impeding the direct course of the ball or by interfering with the normal swing of the mallet.
Deliberately arranging the balls so that they are unable to hit one another due to a hoop or peg obstructing the shot.
Worm Cannon
A simple three-ball cannon in which you only get two balls away from the boundary. The centre ball just overlaps the line joining the centres of the outer balls. A light tap leaves a rush.
Yard Line
This is an imaginary line located one yard in from the inside edge of the marked boundary of the court. It does not extend into the corners but the two adjacent yard lines meet at the corner spot.

Page last updated on 30th January 2006
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